Admiral Michael Rogers will do his utmost to protect Americans from terrorism. But he would never want the price of security to be the basic liberties that Americans hold dear.
“I don’t want to compromise who we are or what we are,” Rogers said. “As long as we can find something in the middle, I can live with that.”
Rogers is Commander of the U.S. Cyber Command and Director, National Security Agency/Chief, Central Security Service. Yesterday he spoke in Cleveland, Ohio, as part of the Cleveland Clinic’s Ideas for Tomorrow Series. The Cleveland Council on World Affairs was a sponsoring partner for the event.
Rogers admitted that NSA has been involved in a great deal of controversy lately. But, he cautioned, people should not believe everything they hear or read in the press.
“We are a foreign intelligence surveillance organization,” Rogers said. “It is illegal” to collect data on domestic persons, he added.
But, he noted, there is an exception: The agency can go to a judge and seek access to data for a specific phone number if it can demonstrate a connection between someone with that phone number and a person believed to be involved in terrorism activities. And, Rogers added, recent executive directives and changes in the law require people outside the NSA to review and approve any such information requests before the NSA can get the data and then access it.
“I would vote for him,” one person said at a reception following the event.
“I don’t trust him,” someone else answered, noting that Rogers left a lot unsaid.
Ironically, the night before Rogers’ talk I’d just finished reading Rachel Bohlen’s debut novel, The Historian. No, this is not Elizabeth Kostova’s 600-plus page vampire book from 2005. Bohlen’s 2014 book bills itself as speculative fiction about time travel, but it’s more of a political thriller. Bohlen’s friendship with my daughter was a big factor motivating me to purchase the book, and I could see how it reflects Bohlen’s background as an attorney and as an alumna of Xavier University’s honors program.
In the book’s near-future setting of Washington, D.C., a Department of Time has the country’s only time machine and its security forces will stop at nothing to thwart anyone suspected of possible time travel terrorism. Those efforts include extensive searches and surveillance to thwart any possibility of time travel terrorism—defined to include even public criticism of the government. Life imprisonment or death is the punishment for a conviction.
Bohlen’s heroine, Emilia Falk, describes herself as a mere historian at the Department of Time, working away in her cubicle on classified and probably pointless research projects. Like most people, she pretty much accepts the secrecy and tight security measures for everything even remotely related to the Department of Time—until her own sister is accused of time terrorism.
Like Rogers, the character who heads the Department of Time is charming and reassures the public in all his statements that the government is only acting within the bounds of the law. Yet while media reports about nonclassified NSA activities are certainly not a crime in the real world, Rogers is clearly concerned about some of those reports.
“I have watched targets…change their behavior as a result of these revelations” about certain technology details and other things, Rogers said. “For those who would say this hasn’t had an impact, clearly you don’t have a clue what you’re talking about.”
However, curtailing discussions about nonclassified technology could threaten freedom of speech and of the press. The practice of science, which relies on open discussion and peer review, could suffer as well.
“Personally, for me, I do not want another major terrorism event on my watch,” Rogers said. He stressed again that the NSA acts within the bounds of the law, subject to both congressional oversight and the Foreign Intelligence Surveillance Court.
Unfortunately, less than 20 percent of the public approves of the job Congress is doing, according to the Gallup Poll. And ex parte proceedings and a high government “win rate” have led some to question whether the FISA court is a “rubber stamp” for the government.
“The very mechanisms we put in place to engender trust in this world today don’t have that trust,” Rogers noted. Even if everyone in the NSA is in fact following the law, that’s a problem.
Serious baseball fans don’t just watch the game. They learn background about players, teams and opponents. Many seem to second-guess coaches’ and managers’ decisions too. “Why is he playing this guy today?” a fan might ask when the clean-up guy in the lineup is someone who’s been in a slump. “Get someone warming up!” another fan shouts when the pitcher walks another batter.
Now a new business idea from America’s Ball Club and the Lake Erie Crushers of Avon, Ohio, gives fans the opportunity to vote as a group on one aspect of the game for an actual professional team—the starting lineup.
Fans who pay a membership fee would get to come up with three or four lineups for each game. The manager would then choose from among those for each remaining game in the season.
“He already makes out a few different lineups for the game and then makes the decision at the last minute” of which one to go with, explains Michael Waghalter of America’s Ball Club. Waghalter and colleague Kevin Barber were in town this month to promote the idea with a pre-game picnic and meet-and-greet with several players from the Crushers.
Unlike previous fan involvement promotions, America’s Ball Club is not currently looking to have fans vote on decisions during the game. Rather, the idea is to engage serious fans to boost their enjoyment of the game. The concept would also share some of that hive’s collective wisdom with team management. Unlike teams in Major League Baseball that have big budgets for statistical and other kinds of analyses, that’s not the case for clubs in independent leagues like the Crushers’ Frontier League.
“When you have baseball right here in your backyard, why not get involved and have a say in their success?” asks Barber. “I think it has a place in this league in this baseball world.”
“I like the idea because it gets people more involved. At this point, why not?” says Crushers player Joey Burney, who played first base at that night’s game against the Washington Wild Things. “I don’t think they would ever put a lineup out there that’s unheard of.”
The membership fee would help guard against that, Waghalter and Barber noted, while also covering expenses so the business could become profitable.
“The upside is it gets the fans more involved,” says Crushers pitcher Trevor Longfellow. “We’ve been struggling fanbase-wide, but I think that will help out with it.”
And the downside? “I don’t really know,” Longfellow says. “It’s more of a positive than a negative, that’s for sure.” He does note, though, that there’s a lot that goes into designing really good lineups.
“If you’re just looking at the statistics, you can’t really tell how a guy does against certain pitches,” Longfellow says. Slumps and streaks matter too. Even a really good pitcher can have bad statistics after one or two bad outings.
“There are diehard fans out there, and they put a lot of time and effort into the game,” notes relief pitcher Brad Duffy, who also likes the idea.
Interestingly, Duffy says he’s not someone who does extensive pre-game analysis and “likes to know everything about everyone” before taking the mound. As a reliever, his job is to go out and help his team in whatever situation the game presents at that moment. Thus, he says he takes each game play by play. “Here’s what I have to do one pitch at a time.”
America’s Ball Club hopes fans can start voting on lineups sometime in July, although whether that happens depends largely on whether the group meets its $75,000 Indiegogo goal. Watch for more in a future blog post here.
Meanwhile, both Crushers’ management and players hope the idea will attract fans to the games.
“I’ll do anything if it gets fans in the stands,” says Burney. “It’s hard to get all pumped up for something if you don’t have fans in the stands.”
And if the America’s Ball Club idea takes off, many of those fans won’t just be sitting in the stands.
“Now they’re looking at the statistics. They’re looking at the lineup,” says Burney. “It’s a baseball experience on steroids.”
While the posts here have been sparse, I’ve nonetheless been busy.
Our family has had a variety of big events and trips. In between, I’ve been tackling a variety of creative cooking adventures, home organizing projects, and sewing endeavors.
On the work front, I’ve had lots of interesting work projects, ranging from the intrigue of state politics and various economic issues to microbiology, neuroscience and environmental issues. I’ve also gotten to go on some extremely intriguing field trip experiences, including a tour of labs at the Cleveland Clinic, an old pig iron blast furnace plant, and a wonderful winter workshop that was put together by the great folks at the Institute for Journalism & Natural Resources.
Things should be getting back to normal now, though, so watch for some really fun columns coming up in the next few weeks.
Meanwhile, if you want to catch up on a few of my other projects over the last few months, check out the following:
“Ditching farm pollution—literally.” Science News for Students, April 17, 2015.
“Silencing genes—to understand them.” Science News for Students, March 27, 2015.
“3-D recycling: Grind, melt, print!” Science News for Students, March 24, 2015.
“Report finds fault with Ohio pipeline routes for fracked gas.” Midwest Energy News, June 2, 2015.
“Net metering going under the microscope in Ohio.” Midwest Energy News, May 18, 2015.
Thanks for your patience! Watch for more original content coming here soon.
Something else awesome has been happening in South Bend, Indiana, this week besides the wake and funeral of Notre Dame legend Theodore Hesburgh. And while that something hasn’t had electric signs highlighting where to park, it’s a first-time-in-a-century event.
In short, the eagles have landed!
Drive a few miles north of Notre Dame’s golden dome, turn left off Route 933 and then park by the big barns at St. Patrick’s County Park. In addition to enjoying the excitement of snow shoeing and tubing, you can see the first bald eagle nest in St. Joseph County in over 100 years.
I was privileged to visit the site earlier this week as part of the Institute for Journalism & Natural Resources’ workshop, “Talking Science, Telling Stories: Natural Resource Journalism in the Great Lakes.” Hosted by the University of Notre Dame’s Environmental Change Initiative, the workshop brought together researchers, journalists, field workers and others to explore some of the cutting edge science and conservation challenges presented in and around the Great Lakes region.
St. Patrick’s County Park is host to the Environmental Change Initiative’s Linked Environmental Experimental Ecosystem Facility, or LEEF. The facility pumps groundwater up into a kidney-shaped pond, from which it flows into a stream and wetland. The system can also be configured in different ways to bypass different parts in that chain.
The aim will let researchers design experiments and test hypotheses under controlled conditions. For example, how long does it take DNA to degrade in a freshwater system? Or, what are the impacts of something upstream on downstream habitats?
Using land at the county park provides space that is close to campus but not otherwise readily available in the midst of classroom buildings, a basilica, library and expansive football stadium. The county park location also provides opportunities for public outreach. Those opportunities include teacher programs, field trips and public outreach days. In short, everyone can have a chance to see science in action.
“We wanted an environmentally friendly facility,” park director Evie Kirkwood told us.
The site was so environmentally friendly that it attracted the county’s first bald eagle nest in 100 years. Built from LOTS of twigs and sticks, the nest measures six feet across. After all, bald eagles are big—especially when they spread their wings!
As exciting as the new eagle’s nest is, it adds a few wrinkles to LEEF’s plans. Federal law restricts activities for up to 650 feet from an active nesting site. More stringent limits apply closer in.
If the eagles stay at the nest and make it permanent, the limits will continue to apply. If the birds leave, that would mean fewer restrictions on the new research facility and other park activities. Yet their departure would also deprive visitors of the chance to see bald eagles up close—or at least as close as allowed under federal law.
“The next few weeks will be critical,” said Kirkwood, adding that she was “surprised” more birders hadn’t come out to the park yet to view the bald eagles.
Let the power run down completely on your laptop, computer tablet, digital clock or other electronic devices, and the screen goes blank. Basically no power means no image.
That doesn’t have to be the case. A new optically rewritable LCD screen does not need its own power source. Plus, its images can appear in 3-D.
Once an image has been uploaded, the screen “does not need any power, of any kind,” to hold the 3-D image,” says Abhishek Srivastava, whose team of researchers developed the new screen at Hong Kong University of Science and Technology. Optics Letters published the team’s study on November 1, 2014.
So, how does the new LCD screen work?
LCD stands for liquid crystal display. Material in one or more layers of the display flow like liquid, but have a structure similar to crystals. In general, the material’s structure affects how much light it lets through. LCDs are in screens for many electronic devices.
As with other LCDs, the new screen makes pictures with pixels. Think of them as thousands of tiny dots. The more twisted the structure of the liquid crystal molecules is in a pixel, the more it lights up.
A dye in the top layer of Srivastava’s screen is sensitive to polarized blue light. A flash of that light makes the long molecular axis of the dye rotate in particular ways to form a 3-D image. Anchoring forces caused by the dye then hold the image in place until someone uploads a new one.
One advantage Srivastava notes is that the image is 3-D. Second, he says, “It needs less optical energy to update the image, and it is faster in comparison” to other LCD screens.
Beyond this, he says, “the image resolution can be extremely high,” although the LCD printer that uploads the image could be a practical limitation.
“Last but not least,” Srivastava says, “the power consumption is greatly reduced.”
The new screen could lower energy use for e-book readers, computers, power monitors and other electronic devices. The screen might also be used for rewritable credit cards or ID cards.
Other developments still need to take place before the screens make their way into computer devices, especially those with color and moving images. “Our technology is ready for the gray still image,” Srivastava says. “Hopefully full color might be available by next year.”
In any case, the study is a neat example of how physics, material science and engineering can come together to shine new light on technology.
This Thanksgiving, millions of Americans will once again head over the river and through the woods—or onto the interstates and jam-packed jets, as the case may be. Millions more will stay home to host family and friends. Most will likely serve turkey. After all, it’s America’s traditional Thanksgiving entrée.
A few months ago, I had the pleasure of interviewing Julie Long, a scientist with the U.S. Department of Agriculture’s Agricultural Research Service. In the spirit of the Thanksgiving holiday, here are three things Long shared that you probably didn’t know about turkey.
- There may no longer be any populations of the wild turkey that was the ancestor of the turkey most Americans will eat this Thanksgiving.
Long and other scientists from USDA, the Netherlands’ Wageningen University, and the Smithsonian Conservation Biology Institute determined that the ancestor of today’s Thanksgiving dinner turkeys was most likely a wild turkey from Mexico.
However, the only place the team could find that turkey was as a preserved specimen at the Smithsonian Institution. And that turkey was genetically distinct from today’s wild turkeys.
“The wild birds that are in North America are not genetically related to the commercial breeds that we eat,” Long says. The team published its findings in BMC Genomics in 2012.
Apparently, early Spanish explorers took the ancestral birds back to Europe. Farmers there developed different breeds. Later, English colonists brought domesticated turkeys with them to Jamestown. So much for a totally “American” tradition.
- Although many media photos of live turkeys show brown birds, the turkey on most Americans’ tables this Thanksgiving will have had white feathers.
Brown turkeys are tasty and edible. But they probably wouldn’t look that good to most Americans.
“At the tip of every feather that’s colored, there’s a bit of pigment in the skin,” Long explains.
That pigment causes dark spots on the skin. Rather than educate people about the meat’s wholesomeness, commercial turkey breeders just raise white turkeys instead.
- All turkeys for large-scale U.S. commercial operations must be artificially inseminated.
In a quest to get the most white meat per turkey at the lowest cost, farmers have bred turkeys to have “enormous breasts,” says Long. “A male turkey can up to get up to 70 or 80 pounds when they’re mature,” says Long.
However, those big-breasted males “physically can’t get where they need to be,” Long says. As a result, farmers need to help them along with artificial means. Because of poultry’s biology, however, achieving high rates of success is more difficult than it is for mammals.
I’m thankful that Long shared these insights with me, along with lots of other fascinating information for the article I was preparing at the time. That piece should be out this winter.
More generally, I’m grateful for all the patience and courtesies that researchers show to me throughout the year so I can better understand and write about science. And I’m thankful for readers who enjoy this blog, along with my books and articles for a variety of outlets.
Here’s hoping everyone has a blessed and wonderful Thanksgiving!
Everyone knows newborn babies sleep a lot. At least, that’s what the books say–although many sleep-deprived parents might disagree. But why?
Scientists have mounting evidence to support the idea that sleep is necessary for effective learning and memory functions. Other research links lack of sleep to increased risks for different types of mental disease.
Now new research adds additional support for the broader idea that researcher Howard Roffwarg and his colleagues suggested as early as 1966–that infant sleep might help in the structural maturation of circuits in the central nervous system.
The new study shows those circuits aren’t limited to those needed for learning and memory. Moreover, the effects of sleep deprivation could last much longer than we think. Amita Sehgal of the University of Pennsylvania presented the research at the Society for Neuroscience’s 2014 annual meeting.
Sehgal first described how fruit flies are a useful model for sleep research. For starters, they’re practical. Fruit flies are cheap to use and breed in large numbers.
Second, fruit flies have many of the same behaviors that mammals do. And yes, fruit flies actually sleep.
Fruit flies have a simpler anatomy than mammals, however. As a result, it’s easier for researchers to do dissections and identify interactions in their central nervous systems.
And beyond all of this, fruit flies are useful for forward genetics work. They have distinct mutant phenotypes with less redundancy and compensation. Modify the genetic makeup, and the fruit fly usually won’t be able to make up for the change with other mechanisms. With these factors in mind, researchers have developed several specific strains of fruit flies to have particular characteristics.
The research team explored how differences in fruit flies’ neurotransmitter levels affected different aspects of sleep, such as difficulty in arousing them from sleep or “rebound” after a period of sleep deprivation.
Researchers also looked at fruit flies’ behavior. In particular, the team found that particular scent pathways that are necessary for effective courtship behavior did not function properly in mature flies if they had been deprived of sleep after being newly hatched. Sehgal and her colleagues Matthew Kayser and Zhifeng Yue published the research in the journal Science in April 2014.
Last month, Senator Rand Paul (R-KY) ranted about NIH funding research “to discover whether or not male fruit flies would like to consort with younger female fruit flies.” Sehgal said yes, her group’s research was what Rand was referring to.
But the study wasn’t about sex, she stressed. And while the study was done with fruit flies, their importance as an animal model means that human researchers can learn a lot from the results.
Bottom line: Much more happens in newborn sleep than we realize. And scientists now have measurable evidence to document some of what’s going on.
Of course, much more work remains to be done. Maybe some of today’s newborns will one day add to the growing body of scientific knowledge and understanding about the brain.
And maybe their parents will get to catch up on some sleep.